The Direct Object of Pollution or Damage to Land and the Mechanism of Injury to the Direct Object of the Crime

The article analyzes the direct object of the offense under Art. 239 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine. It is proved that the direct object of pollution or damage to land are social relations in the sphere of protection and rational use of lands. Additional mandatory objects specified crimes are social relations that provide life or health of persons, as well as environmental safety. Additional optional objects can be, for example, property relations, economic relations. Damage primarily direct object of the offense under Art. 239 CC, caused socially dangerous and unlawful act – violation of special rules that caused socially dangerous consequences in the form of pollution or damage to land – the main (intermediate) result and additional (derivatives)
consequences, endangering the life, health or the environment (p. 1); loss of life, their mass illness or other grave consequences (p. 2). The matter of social relations on art. 239 Criminal Code of Ukraine in our view is a natural site as land. Subjects relationship рrotected by Art. 239 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine, are employees that are responsible for transportation, use, disposal or violated the constitutional prohibition to harm the environment, or inefficiently used land that has caused causing corresponding damage to the environment on the one hand, and natural and legal persons that enter into social relationships with these individuals about their activities – on the other. It can be individuals, officials and others. Social communication on art. 239 Criminal Code of Ukraine in our view is found in the behavior of specified public relations for the rational use of natural resources such as land. The mechanism of injury to the direct object of the crime under Art. 239 CC: public relations damage inflicted specified by breaking the social link between their subjects, usually as a result of external influence on him of individuals who are not participants of public relations and / or modification of the object protected by social relations.