State thought Hetman of Ukraine (the middle of XVII–XVIII centuries): the Substantial Aspects

The article analyzes the idea of statesmanship by the Hetmans of the Cossack state in second half XVII – beginning of XVIII century, reflected in Hetman’s Universals , «Articles» letters and constitutional projects. The evolution of ideas about state sovereignty, form of government, the organization of supreme power, rights and freedoms of various states, diplomacy hetmans Ukraine are being researched. In historical – legal science the idea of statesmanship of Hetman period was studied in the
context of the history of the Cossack state, its law, biographies of their creators – in the works of M. Kostomarov, V. Antonovich, Hrushevsky, D. Doroshenko et al., such modern researchers as: V. Smoliya V. Stepankova, Alexander Mironenko, A. Kozachenko and others. The author’s monograph «The higher representative bodies in Ukraine (historical and legal research)» (2005) was not an exception . Meanwhile, the study of statesmanship ideas of Hetmans period enriches our knowledge of state-hetmans experience, its logic and problems, development of state-building concepts. This article briefly explore some substantive aspects of statesmanship ideas of hetmans Cossack state. The article analyzes the main aspects and state programs after Bohdan Khmelnytsky National Revolution 1648 – project entry of Cossack state as an autonomy of the Rich Pospolyta, the development of domestic and foreign policy of the Cossack state, its independence, the legal status of military – political union with Russia in 1654 g. Hetman Vyhovsky’s project to create a federation of three states in the Rich Pospolyta, its advantages and disadvantages, rejection from Cossacks and peasants is discussed . The division between of Ukraine between Russia and
Poland in terms of «perpetual peace» has complicated the development of statesmanship ideas hetmans Left-Bank and Right-Bank of Ukraine, narrowed the legal status of the Cossack state under the auspices of Russia and Poland. In the article the concept of statehood and intentions of Hetman Ivan Briukhovetsky, Mnohohrishny, Doroshenko, I. Samoilovych, Sich Kosh are covered. The political program of Mazepa to revive the Cossack state, its independent existence, causes of failures of implementation are highlighted and analyzed. Among them is imperial policy of the Russian Tsar Peter the Great, aimed at the final elimination of the autonomy of Hetmanateand spreading of Russian law on it’s territory, the destruction of democratic principles of Cossack republic. A requests to the king from Hetman I. Skoropadskyi were only about the preservation of Ukrainian autonomy. An important role has analysis of state-building plans and «Pacts and Constitutions» by P. Orlik 1710 – wich is the landmark of national constitutionalism. The conclusions about obvious intention of Hetman P. Orlik to fasten at the constitutional level restorement of sovereignty of Cossack state with a republican form of government, with borders which recognized since the days of Bohdan Khmelnytsky. The article ends with the conclusion about the value of historical monuments of statesmanship idea of Ukrainian hetmans reviewed period, for the study of the history of national state.