Forensic diagnostics: Concept, meaning, and scope of implementation

The current stage of development of forensics is described by an active search for the latest cognitive methods and tools, which fully include forensic diagnostics. The relevance of the subject matter is conditioned by the need to form a modern terminology of the forensic science, further development of the scientific concept of forensic diagnostics, and prospects for creating an appropriate forensic teaching. The purpose of the study is to analyse modern scientific approaches to understanding the concept of forensic diagnostics, its features, structure, integrative functions, and differences from other paired forensic categories. To achieve this goal, such general scientific and special research methods as dialectical, historical, Aristotelian, system-structural, sociological, statistical, the method of legal forecasting and modelling, system and semantic analysis were used. It is proved that the term "forensic diagnostics" should be considered in practical and theoretical terms. In practical terms, forensic diagnostics is a method of recognising the state of objects, cognition of phenomena and processes related to the circumstances of the crime event, determined by the latter. This is a kind of tool at the disposal of an expert, investigator, detective, judge to know the object (event, phenomenon) by its reflection. In the theoretical sense, forensic diagnostics is considered as a separate forensic teaching, which constitutes a system of theoretical provisions on the regularities of recognising objects (situations) by their features and properties, based on the analysis of changes that occurred in them under the influence of the circumstances of the crime event and its participants, in order to carry out evidence in criminal proceedings. It is noted that the theoretical basis of forensic diagnostics comprises information on the patterns of occurrence of diagnosed objects, data on typical models of event reflection (action, behaviour). It is noted that forensic diagnostics as a separate forensic teaching (theory) is at the stage of its development, constantly increasing its scientific potential and expanding the scope of practical implementation. Further development of the theory and practice of diagnostic research involves systematisation and classification of diagnostic features and sets of features of objects, events, phenomena in accordance with the solution of diagnostic problems, classification of typical situations, development of methods and techniques of diagnostic research

Doi: 10.37635/jnalsu.28(1).2021.187-194