Object and Subject of Criminalistics

Scientific views on the object and subject of criminalistics are examined in the article . It is noted that the definitions of the object and subject of the research are regarded to the most significant areas of criminalistical doctrine. Aspiration of the scientists to offer optimal, benchmark definitions of these categories of criminalistics stimulated the appearance in literature of different points of view on the indicated subject. It is proved that criminalistics has a dual object of research – criminal activity (behavior) and its consequences, that appear in the sources of information (material and ideal traces) and activities of identifing, investigating and prevention of criminal offences and judicial review of criminal proceedings (cases). According to this structure, the object of criminalistics, its subject of study is a system of interrelated patterns of the two following levels: 1) regularities of the emergence, existence and disappearance of information about criminal activity (behaviour), which finds its realization in the mechanism of a crime and appears in the relevant sources (the pattern between the identity of the perpetrator and his behavior; the pattern between perpetrator’s behavior and the identity of the victim; dependence of criminalistical activity and its elements on the conditions, in which the perpetrator exists; presentation, repeatability and constancy of the elements of criminal activity (behaviour) in the material world; the pattern of perception of the circumstances of the criminal event by perpetrator, witness, victim, etc.); 2) the patterns of acquisition, research, evaluation and use of information on criminalistical activity (behaviour) and its consequences in the evidence (the dependence of the content and the system of evidentiary material on criminalistical tools and methods concerning the detection, recording, removal and storage of the sources of this information; patterns between behavior and activities of participants in the investigation (professional and amateur) from their personal characteristics, investigative situations, etc.). This is the paradigm that is consistent with the nature, purpose and tasks of criminalistics. It determinesthe specificity of relations with other Sciences, gives the opportunity to understand the scope and nature of object and subject, structure and research method. Taking the above into account extension of object and subject areas of criminalistics currently does not seem appropriate. And attempts to “blur” the subject of criminalistics – seem to be unproductive and false, such that
give rise to unnecessary discussion and distract the attention of scientists from the intelligent support of implementation of the main goals and tasks in the field of criminalistics.