Human Rights in the Modern Orthodox Interpretation (in the Light of International Standards)

The problem of human rights, invariably remaining the political and legal one, has got the religious and philosophical sounds. The research of some problems of the orthodox interpretation of human rights was done, in particular, by I. Balzik, D. Vovk, S. Dobryanskyy, G. Druzenko, O. Lvova, S. Misevych, I. Oborotov, O. Pankevych. The article is dedicated to the research of peculiarities of the interpretation of human rights in the modern orthodox doctrines in the comparison with international standards of such rights. These peculiarities are presented with regard to understanding some human rights (the right for life, the rights of freedom of worship (world-outlook choice), freedom of speech, family creation, property, labour, deserved earnings, rest) according to theses which are included in the modern sources of the social orthodox doctrines. These theses are compared with the international standards of these rights, their identical and different features appear as the result of this comparison. In particular, among the identical features there are the following statements: all human rights are universal, inseparable and interrelated; all people should provide their founding rights with the democratic methods. The differences are connected with the complicated interpretation of some existential problems, such as the problem of the moment of the beginning of a human life (questions of abortion, extracorporeal impregnation) and the moment of its end (the question of euthanasia), the problem of
marriage contract, the right of every person to give up the fulfilling of some duty because of his own religious belief. As the result of the research gives the following theoretical conclusions. For the last decades the orthodox churches directly paid their attention to the human rights problems. It was done for the first time in their history. The churches gave these problems mainly the positive moral religious appreciation. In their acting documents connected with these problems the churches gave quite concrete recommendations which rights need to be defended in the first instance. Some theses of modern local orthodox churches concerning human rights problems not always coincide in their content. Most surely, it is explained by the influence of specific historical peculiarities of their appearance and existence as well as the development of those societies in which such churches function. The theses of modern orthodox doctrines about some founding human rights somehow contradict corresponding international standards. These divergences are conditioned first of all by the fundamental principles of this religion. They are still interpreted orthodoxically conservatively by some orthodox churches. As for as such too conservative approach is caused by the fundamental «axiom» principles of the orthodox religion themselves the collisions of such kind will inevitably be reproduced in the future.