Legal grounds for restricting access to information: A philosophical aspect

The rapid spread of the Internet and communication technologies raises the issue of access to information, especially access to information via the Internet. The amount of information on the network is constantly increasing, and at the same time more and more efforts are being made to limit users' access to it to some extent. The more restrictions state bodies create in this area, the more efforts are made to circumvent or violate these prohibitions. Free access to information in a democratic society should be the rule, and restriction of this right – the exception. These restrictions should be clearly defined by law and applied only in cases where legitimate and vital interests, such as national security and privacy, need to be respected. The main purpose of this study is to consider the legal and socio-philosophical aspects of access to information. Restricting access to documents as media has been practiced since ancient times. The study highlights the existing inconsistencies and lags in the implementation of the principles of exercise of the right to information in Ukraine at the level of laws and subordinate legislation. The study classifies information according to the nature of restrictions (exercise) of constitutional rights and freedoms in the information sphere. It was discovered that the legislation of Ukraine does not systematise the list of confidential information in a single regulation in contrast to the Russian Federation and provides the main types of confidential personal information. It was found that restrictions on any freedoms and human rights, including in the information space, can be established with the help of various regulators, the dominant among which are the following levels of implementation: legal (legislative); moral self-consciousness of society; autonomy of the person. Features and spheres of action of regulators of restriction of freedoms and human rights are described. To restrict access to information, various methods are used to protect it from unauthorised receipt, which can be divided into two groups: formal and informal

Doi: 10.37635/jnalsu.28(3).2021.64-73