Issues on the Adoption of the European Union Directive 2009/28/EC (Directive on Renewable Energy) as Exemplified by the Polish Energy Sector

Poland is one of the largest coal producers in the European Union and therefore among those member countries least dependent on energy imports. Both electricity and the primary energy supply is based largely on Polish hard coal. However, not only the serious consequences of this situation in terms of high emissions and CO2 intensity, but also the obvious vulner ability of such a mono-structure, pared with requirements of European legislation, calls for a fundamental change in Poland’senergy mix. In addition, Poland hasto import other fossil fuels such as oil and gas – primarily from Russia, which raises unease in Poland not only in terms of general reluctance to economic dependence of Russia, but also with regard to the recentpricing policy of Moscow to wards Ukraine or Belarus. The question of whether the EU “Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/ЕС)” of 2009 triggered thelong-time for ecasted «breakthrough” for renewable energies in Poland is subject of this paper.