The System of Criminology: Traditional Approaches and Innovative Suggestions

Traditional approaches and innovative suggestions for the formation of the criminal science are discovered in the article. It is noted that the extension of the sphere of scientific inquiry, the accumulation of new knowledge, the need for their ordination objectively determine the need to adjust the existing system of criminal science, the transformation of the scientific points of view on this issue. The desire of scientists to develop an optimal and reference system of criminal science has led to the emergence of different points of view relative to its architectonics in literature. Taking into account the results of the analysis of advanced criminalistical literature three scientific concepts of formation of system of criminal science are proposed: 1) increase of the number of existing partitions; 2) the return to the two-element structure (general and special parts);3) recognition of the dominant four-element structure of criminal knowledge ordination. It is proved that the reform, that is not a simple increase or decrease in the elemental composition of the criminology system, but the fundamental change in the concept of its formation, is possible only under condition of achievement of a certain level of criminal science development by itself, where it is primarily about the general theory and the level of its development, as well as about the existing of appropriate scientific arsenal, which is supposed to be regulated according to the new principles. Taking into account the fact that science system is a certain way structured knowledge about its subjects, improvement of the criminology system should be based on existing scientific paradigms with respect to its subject matter. Systematization of criminalistical knowledge should be in specific, well-defined criteria, in particular, the system of scientific knowledge should meet the system of laws included in the subject of criminology. The consistency of the scientific knowledge order and the nature of relations between its elements should be considered as the most significant symptoms of applicability for a particular system. The subordination relationship between the whole and the parts, that exist between the subjects of the general theory of criminology and of private criminalistical theories, are the criterion,
which can attribute a particular theoretical construct to the theory of a certain level. It is reasonable to consider general provisions of criminalistical techniques, tactics and methods as a set of theoretical constructs that make up the reserve for the formation of an independent criminalistical studies. Taking into account the fact that not all theoretical constructs can claim the level of individual scientific theories, applications and approvals of the already established particular new criminalistical theory or the need of its formation should be well-reasoned. The main elements of the system of criminology in particular interpretation are general theory, criminalistical techniques, tactics and methods.