Theoretical and Historical Aspects of Formation of Special Scientific Picture of the World Based on Comparative Legal Studies

In the article the elements of the theory of scientific picture of the world, the processes of historical formation of general and special scientific pictures of the world are considered. Attention is drawn to the peculiarities of the scientific pitures of the world formation in the human sciences in the second half XVIII – the first third of the XIX century. The author argues that the most important manifestation of comparative legal thinking of legal scholars, regardless of its implementation in a particular scientific discipline, was the formation during this period, against a background of universalist legal ideologies bankruptcy, of non-metaphysics scientific picture of the world – a separate, special and general in the legal development. The basis of this scientific
picture became the conceptualization of legal map of the world, formed exclusively of national-state legal orders as separate units, territorial and total in its scope. The elements of such scientific picture of the world were also the teachings on of the immanent nature of a general in the legal development, that exist in the form of general elements of national legal orders (along with the original elements) and dialogue process of these orders, on special in law as a concrete general, the originality of national law, borrowings in law, the classification of legal systems.