Formation of Ukrainian National Republic (100 years of Third Universal)

The author examines the influence of the coup of 25th October 1917 in Petrograd to the process of the state formation in Ukraine. The conclusion was that the Central Rada condemned the seizure of power by the Bolsheviks. This position of the Central Rada led to a change and autonomic vector in the national-state revival was replaced by independent vector. This found an expression in the jurisdiction of the Central Rada and the General Secretariat on all ethnically-Ukrainian provinces. And the highest manifestation of this was the adoption of the Third Universal, which proclaimed Ukrainian National Republic (UNR). Having proclaimed the UNR, the Third Universal determined the foreign policy program of the new state and internal socio-economic objectives of the UNR. As the first priority of foreign policy of the UNR was proclaimed the establishment of universal peace and with this purpose immediately began negotiations between warring countries. In the area of internal policy, the program proclaimed by the Third Universal was ambitious. The right of private ownership of land was cancelled. The land was proclaimed the property of the working people and had to go to them without ransom. In the UNR abolished the death penalty and was given amnesty, proclaimed democratic freedoms of: speech, religion, meetings, unions, strikes, inviolability of person and home; right to a fair trial; 8-hour working day and so on.
The Third Universal appointed the convocation of the Ukrainian Constituent Assembly, guaranteed the right of local self-government, provided the national-cultural rights of the Russian, Polish, Jewish and other peoples, ensured the use of local languages.
The author analyzed problematic regulations of the Third Universal, first of all, the issues of Federation with the Russian government. The causes of what and the negative consequences for future state formation process in Ukraine were showed.