Police authorities and units are a separate link in the system of ensuring all levels of national security, including a transport one. Globalization, technological progress and urbanization are leading to an increase in vehicular transports and freight carriage, which makes it necessary to ensure transport safety. The purpose of the academic paper is as follows: to identify the factors that affect transport safety and the impact of police authorities and units of the European Union on transport safety. In order to achieve the purpose outlined the following methods have been used, namely: statistical analysis, correlation, factor analysis, generalization and analogy. It has been established that there is a positive interrelationship between the number of police officers, the number of road traffic accidents and the number of casualties on the road in Cyprus. A negative interrelationship has been proved between the number of police officers and the number of road traffic accidents in Germany, Finland, Greece, Belgium and Sweden. The positive interdependence has been revealed between the number of police officers and casualties of road traffic accidents in Cyprus, Germany, Finland, and a negative interdependence in Greece, Belgium, Sweden. It has been found that there is a low level of interdependence between the number of cars and the number of road traffic accidents in Sweden and Germany, a negative interrelationship in Cyprus, Greece, Belgium and Finland. Factors influencing transport safety have been established, namely: legislative regulation, level of introduction of innovative digital technologies, transport infrastructure, geographical location, length of roads, psychophysical factors of drivers, social ones. It has been proved that police authorities and units, taking into account other factors that affect transport safety, do not sufficiently ensure transport safety in the European Union.
Keywords: road traffic accident, vehicle, accident, road traffic, enforcement.