The Content and Structure of the General Theory of Criminalistics

The general theory is considered to be one of the most important directions of criminalistics. The state of the science of criminalistics, the level of implementation of its functions and tasks explain need to promote researches in the mentioned areas, because formation of the general theory of the criminalistic science reflects modern state of this science itself. At the same time the criminalists till today have not common point of view on the key issues of the researchedproblematic. Furthermore, not enough attention to the conceptual question of the general theory formation and determination of its content and structure in the modern criminalistic science was paid. The target of this paper is analysis of the current state of development of the general theory of criminalistics, its content and structure, defining the disputable issues on this problematic, making proposition of the ways and methods to solve them. It’s pointed out, that despite of the fact of the uniform understanding of the essence of the
general theory of criminalistics, the scientists express differently on its structure. It’s proposed to distinguish two parts: 1) the conceptual foundations of the general theory of criminalistics, that will include the object, methods, area of research, system, nature, structure of terms and categories of criminalistics (conceptual apparatus of criminalistics), its interdisciplinary ties and place in science as well as current state; 2) separate criminalistic theories (doctrines). The attention is paid at the fact that the classification of the research objects is disputable and one of the worst researched in the theory of criminalistics. It’s noted that the modern state of criminalistics is characterized by existence and co-existence of a number of paradigms, oriented
at research of its object. The critical remarks are expressed concerning some of scientists on the matter of their wish to widen or reduct the composition of elements of the criminalistics system. It’s proved that reformation, i.e. not just growth or reduction of the elements composition of the system of criminalistics, but also dramatic change of its formation concept, are possible only through achieving of the proper level by the criminalistics. It must be taken into consideration that improvement of criminalistics system must be undertaken with regard to existing scientific paradigms on its object, because the system of science is a structured knowledge about its object itself. It’s noted that each particular criminalistic theory is to possess its own object and research methods, explaines its meaning and character of ties with other theories (doctrines), determines target, tasks, functions and place in the system of criminalistics, it must develop on the particular scientific basis, have proper empirical basis, as well as proper state of consolidation, that explains the ability of pointing out of some tendencies which complement and specify the subject of criminalistics in general. In turn, the nature of tendencies, which are researched by each of
criminalistic theories (doctrines), determines the way they are ordered in the structure of the general theory. Herewith there are relations of subordination of the general and the part between the objects of general theory and particular theories (doctrines).
It’s noted that the current system of criminalistic theories (doctrines) has a dynamic character and its improvement is explained by the needs of court and investigation practice, development of related sciences, general theory and individual criminalistic theories, changes of ties and subordinations among them.